During the first-half of 2014, together with another researcher I performed an offensive security analisys focused on the core of the Internet: its global routing table.
We looked at real-life practices and tools deployed by network operators, identifying multiple attack venues and discovering several live incidents related to “looking-glass” softwares. The results described here have been peer-reviewed, presented at several security conferences, and also received a bug bounty.

Internet routing

The Internet is a network of networks, where each individual network is a so-called Autonomous System (AS). From an high level perspective, The Internet is composed by a large number of ASes which cooperate to exchange and carry data across their links.
Exterior gateway protocols such as the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) are used to connect different ASes, and in this way the network of networks is created.

Routers are the devices responsible to connect the network nodes. In particular, backbone routers are hardware components of the Internet core infrastracture. They connect the ASes and are in charge of worldwide traffic routing.

Looking-glass software

When debugging BGP routing problems, engineers from a Network Operations Center (NOC) operators are often facing issues affecting only a specific set of ASes. Such problems are harder to debug due to the lack of a view on the remote routing table. For this reason, a new category of web-applications emerged in the ’90s to permit a restricted set of operations on routers and server owned by a different AS, by the large public, over the web. This kind of software is usually referred as “looking-glass” (LG), as it offers a local observation point to remote network engineers.

Looking-glasses are web scripts, usually implemented in Perl or PHP and directly connected to routers admin interfaces (i.e., telnet or SSH). These scripts are designed to relay textual commands from the web to the router and print back router’s replies. They run on top of common Linux/Apache stacks, and sometimes provide additional utilities for latency and traceroute measurements.

Vulnerabilities

Incidents

Some of these bugs (in particular 3927, 3928, 3929, 3930) have directly or indirectly resulted in exposed IPs, usernames, passwords, SSH private keys and remote command injection to router’s console. Depending on the specific infrastructure setup, this may translate into an attacker having live access to routers CLI.

During the study, we detected around 45 incidents somehow related to above bugs, which we have already reported to concerned NOC contacts, whois contacts and national FSIRTs for further handling. Advanced private disclosure to concerned entities was performed on 2014/06/02.

A summary of the incidents we spotted in the wild is shown in the table below, with geographical distribution of impacted ASes.

Summary of affected ASes, by category:

Impact

A looking-glass is an often overlooked critical part of an operator infrastructure, as it sits at the border between the public web and restricted admin consoles. As such, an attack against this component may escalate from basic web scenarios to advanced worldwide networking threats.

Our results have been greatly summarized by one anonymous WOOT reviewer:

“Find old, open-source web apps that no auditor has ever touched before yet are used on extremely high value systems. Bloodbath ensues.”

- Anonymous reviewer, WOOT ‘14

Post-exploitation scenarios are multiple and widely depend on actual network configurations. After abusing some of the above issues, an attacker may actually be capable of logging-in into backbone routers. Here, we just highlight some of the possible attacks that came to our mind:

Reports

More detailed analysis of bugs, exploitation scenarios, incidents and impact can be found in the following proceedings:

Credits

Thanks to my colleague Mariano who worked on this with me, and to the whole security research team (S3) at Eurecom for support.